Typically, if you park in a bike lane, the worst you'll get is a ticket and a car covered in the spit of passing cyclists. Seriously, bikers love to spit on cars. I've seen them do it without any provocation whatsoever. It's why, though I ride a bike regularly, I can't ever get full-on into bike culture. I have dry mouth.
In DC, however, park in a bike lane and you could end up with your vehicle featured on that city's Department of Transportation Twitter feed. The DOT's communications director told WNYC that as the city continues to stretch their bike lane coverage from 50 miles to 60, they're doing what they can to get drivers used to the fact that the lanes aren't just an awesome place to park that no one else has picked up on yet.